ANNUAL PRESS-RELEASE OF ARMENIAN GENOCIDE MUSEUM-INSTITUTE
“In the end of the year it turned out that we have three and four times more problems than we had in the beginning of the year”.
Today the annual press-release of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and secretary of state commission on coordinating the 100th anniversary events of the Armenian Genocide took place. During the press-release AGMI Director and secretary of state commission on coordinating the 100th anniversary events of the Armenian Genocide Hayk Demoyan referred to the important achievements of the museum, the problems in the beginning of the year commitments and challenges of the museum-institute.
During 2015, temporary exhibitions were organized by AGMI in more than 60 cities in Armenia and abroad. In the last years, Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute had published about seventy literature units; Armenian, Russian, English and French collections, monographs, books, catalogs. Around 60 international conferences had referred to the theme of Armenian Genocide. The main exhibition of the museum had opened in April which, however is the most important achievement of the year.
THE LAST TEMPORARY EXHIBITION OF THIS YEAR OPENED AT AGMI
“Struggling for life and dignity: self-defense battles in the years of Armenian Genocide”
On 18 December, the last temporary exhibition of this year titled “Struggling for life and dignity: self-defense battles in the years of Armenian Genocide” opened at Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute with the presentation of the catalog with the same name.
The bilingual (Armenian, English) exhibition and catalog consisted of sixteen headlines present the heroic episodes of the Armenian Genocide; numerous impressive self - defense battles, as well as the victories proclaiming the birth of the first Armenian Republic. It is important to focus on these glorious pages of Armenian history and present the grief of millions of innocent martyrs with the endurance and struggle decisiveness of our nation.
GREEK MINISTER OF NATIONAL DEFENCE VISITED AGMI
On 17 December, Greek delegation headed by Minister of National Defense
Panos Kammenos visited Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute. Members of Greek delegation visited the Memorial Complex of Tsitsernakaberd accompanied with AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan, and paid tribute to the innocent martyrs of Armenian Genocide.
Minister Panos Kammenos and the Greek delegation visited Armenian Genocide Museum and got acquainted with the facts and documents of the Armenian Genocide, after which Minister Kammenos left a note in the Memory Book of honorable guests.
PUBLICATIONS OF AGMI WORKERS HAD BEEN PUBLISHED IN FOREIGN COLLECTIONS
In November 2015, ublication of two AGMI workers had been published in foreign collections.
The article of Hayk Demoyan; Doctor of historical science and Director of AGMI titled “Symbolic Geography: Geography as a Symbol in the Post-Soviet South Caucasus” has published in a collection of famous international “Brill” publishing-house. The summery of the collection “After the Soviet Empire; Legacies and Pathways” reads: “The break-up of the Soviet Union is a key event of the twentieth century. The 39th IIS congress in Yerevan 2009 focused on causes and consequences of this event and on shifts in the world order that followed in its wake. This volume is an effort to chart these developments in empirical and conceptual terms”.
The study of Armenian Genocide Museum Deputy director Lusine Abrahamyan “The status of Armenian orphans, refugees according to "Armianski Vestnik" newspaper reports” has published in “Mass Media and the Genocide of the Armenians: One Hundred Years of Uncertain Representation” collection.
INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS VISITED AGMI ON THE EVE OF THE REFERENDUM
In 4 December, representatives of delegations to observe Constitution referendum in Armenia visited Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute. They visited the Genocide Museum and got acquainted with the temporary and permanent exhibitions presenting the proofs and facts of the Armenian Genocide.
Thirty-three delegates visited AGMI coming from fourteen countries; South Korea, Uzbekistan, Gherghzstan, Tajikistan, Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Romania, Belarus, Russia, Serbia, Turkmenistan, and Georgia.
Foreign guests also visited the Memorial Complex and put flowers at the eternal fire.
Delegation of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic Visited AGMI Headed by Jan Hamachek
In 3 December, Delegation of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic visited Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute. The delegation headed by the President of the Chamber of Deputies Jan Hamachek visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex and laid a wreath on behalf of the Parliament of Czech Republic and near the eternal fire they honored the memory of the innocent martyrs with a minute of silence.
Czech politicians also visited the Genocide Museum and got acquainted with the proofs and documents telling the history of Armenian Genocide. Mr. Jan Hamachek left a note in the Memory Book of honorable guests.
EUROPEAN CHURCHES CONFERENCE DELEGATION VISITED AGMI
In November 26, European Churches Conference delegation (CEC) visited AGMI headed by the Chair of the body Bishop of Anglican Church Christopher Hill. About thirty delegates of Christian ecumenical organization put flowers at the eternal fires and honored the memory of innocent martyrs with a minute of silence.
Remembrance ceremony in English language headed by Bishop Hill was held over there, asking the intercession of the saints.
After the prayers the delegation also visited Armenian Genocide Museum and got acquainted with the historical facts of the Armenian Genocide.
DEFENSE MINISTER OF SERBIA BRATISLAV GASHICH VISITED AGMI
Defense Minister of Serbian Republic Bratislav Gashich visited Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex. Serbian delegation headed by Mr. Gashich put flowers near the eternal fire and honored the memory of innocent martyrs with a minute of silence.
Bratislav Gashich and the accompanied delegation visited Armenian Genocide Museum and got acquainted with the proofs and documents of Armenian Genocide.
AGMI Deputy Director Suren Manukyan presented to Bratislav Gashich some of the publications of AGMI.
NEW STAMPS DEDICATED TO ARMENIAN GENOCIDE MUSEUM-INSTITUTE
International Philatelic Exhibition opened in AGMI
In 21 November, within the framework of Philatelic exhibition two new stamps dedicated to “Armenian Museums: Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute” were canceled and put into circulation at AGMI.
The building of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute, as well as parts of the museum permanent exhibition is depicted on the stamps.
At the same day, International Philatelic Exhibition opened in AGMI conference hall dedicated to the centennial of Armenian Genocide. Around 40 participants have presented their collections in this unprecedented international exhibition. The participants were from Armenia, Republic of Artsakh, USA, Argentina, Russian Federation, Lithuania and Ukraine.
The exhibition was organized by Armenian Union of Philatelists, RA Ministry of Transport and Communications, and "Haypost" CJSC. The aim of this exhibition is to raise awareness of genocides and the need for prevention and elimination of their consequences throughout philately, and to introduce this tragic page of world history to the Armenian and foreign audience.
Mtskheta City Delegation at AGMI
In November 20, Mayor of Georgian Mtskheta city and representatives of the City Council visited AGMI. Mayor Avtandil Nemsitsveridze, City Council Chairman Ilya Jishkariani, and Municipality Culture and Sport Specialist Tengiz Khutsishvili visited the Genocide Museum and got acquainted with the episodes and proofs of the Armenian Genocide.
Mayor Avtandil Nemsitsveridze left a note in the book of honorable guests.
The guest visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial accompanied with Mayor of Etchmiadzin Karen Grigoryan and Deputy Mayors and honored the memory of the innocent martyrs with a minute of silence.
Eugene Kaspersky visited AGMI
In 18 November, Director of world famous company “Kaspersky Lab” Eugene Kaspersky visited Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute. Renowned specialist of cyber security visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex and laid flowers at the eternal fire honoring the memory of the innocent martyrs.
Eugene Kaspersky also visited the Genocide Museum and got acquainted with the presented exhibition.
Kaspersky left a note in the book of honorable guests, after which he planted a fir in the Memory Alley.
At the end of the visit Director of AGMI Hayk Demoyan handed some of AGMI publications to Eugene Kaspersky.
In 17 November, Eugene Kaspersky has been awarded by RA President Award in the field of Informative Technology for his significant global contribution.
NEW EXHIBITION OF AGMI IN PARIS
In November 5, at the Armenian Church Diocesan in Paris St. John the Baptist an exhibition and charity book sale took place. Postcards depicting Armenian churches were presented to the Armenian community in Paris. The postcards were issued in the beginning of the 20th century by the international postal service.
Armenian churches of Western Armenia, Iran, Russia, Georgia, and Armenia were presented on the postcards published in different countries.
AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan said: “Most of the churches no longer exist. This is the sorrowful reality and the meaning of the exhibition. They had been destroyed during the genocide years or as a result of the Turkish policy after the genocide. What you see here is the initial appearance of buildings and churches saved by miracle. Today they are changed. Even turned to mosques, as the case of the Armenian Church in Aintab, or completely changed as St. Sargis Church in Yerevan. Unfortunately, most of these churches were victims of time”.
NEW TEMPORARY EXHIBITION AT AGMI
“Western Armenia through the photo lenses of Dildilian and Djerdjian”
In 12 November, a photo exhibition opened at AGMI titled “Western Armenia through the photo lenses of Dildilian and Djerdjian” .
The photos of Dildilian family depict the daily life and family photos of Western Armenia and different settlements of Asia Minor; from Trabzon to Konya Province. Several generations of the family have engaged in photography work, and established studios in Marzvan and Samsun. Tsolak and Aram Dilidilian had become unique “historians” documenting the city-life of Marzvan.
George Jerjian was an Armenian teacher from Arabkir and Karin (Erzurum). In the early 1900s, visiting different areas of Western Armenia he had took with his photo camera about 240 photos of his homeland Arabkir, Karin Sanasarian College, and different scenes from Western Armenia; but only 100 photos are saved.
STUDENTS OF HISTORY FACULTY AT YSU RECEIVED THEIR TEST-BOOKS AT AGMI
In 12th of November, around 100 bachelor students of YSU History Faculty of four professions; history, cultural studies, Caucasian studies, History of Art received their test-books at AGMI. MA Students of first courses of the Faculty of History were also among them.
AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan, Deputy Director Suren Manukyan and Dean of YSU Faculty of History Edik Minasyan congratulated the students and handed their test-books.
AGMI SENIOR RESEARCHER EDITA GZOYAN PARTICIPATED IN EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY CONFERENCE
In 5-7 November, AGMI senior researcher Edita Gzoyan participated in international conference held in the United Kingdom.
Edita Gzoyan has presented a report on the issue of possible reparation of Armenian Genocide at the European Court of Human Rights.
The conference titled “Repairing the Past, Imagining the Future: Reparations and Beyond…” was organized by the University of Edinburg in cooperation with Wheelock College in US and was dedicated to the crimes against humanity and the problem of reparation for slavery.
Russia Federation Council Speaker Valentina Matviyenko visited AGMI
On 3 November, president of Russian upper house of parliament Valentina Matviyenko visited AGMI accompanied with Russian Federation Council delegation and RA NA Vice President Mrs. Hermine Naghdalyan.
They honored the memory of the innocent martyrs with a minute of silence near the eternal fire of the Memorial Complex.
Mrs. Valentina Matviyenko also visited the museum and got acquainted with the historical documents and proofs of the Armenian Genocide.
PARAGUAY RECOGNIZES AND CONDEMNS THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
On 29 October, the Senate of the Republic of Paraguay adopted a resolution recognizing and condemning the Armenian Genocide.
The first article of the resolution reads: “The Senate of the Republic of Paraguay recognizes the genocide of the Armenian people in the period 1915-1923, committed by the Turkish-Ottoman Empire, when commemorating this year the centenary of that crime against humanity”.
The bill was presented to Paraguay Progressive Democratic Party by the efforts of Armenian National Committee.
AGMI ANNOUNCES 2016 LEMKIN SCHOLARSHIP FOR FOREIGN STUDENTS
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute announces 2016 LEMKIN SCHOLARSHIP program for foreign students and PhD candidates.
Raphael Lemkin scholarship is intended to enable foreign students and young scientists, who specialize in genocide studies, especially in the Armenian Genocide, to visit Armenia for a month to conduct research in local scientific institutions and libraries.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute will provide researchers possibility to carry out their research in AGMI, including necessary research materials and consultation.
AGMI starts a serie of Charity Lectures and Book Presentations
On 30 October, in American city of Providence launches a seminar under the title "The Women in Genocide”.
AGMI Director, Doctor of historical science Hayk Demoyan will present a report titled “The intriguing life of Aurora Martikanian- survivor of Armenian Genocide”.
On the same day the presentation of the book “The Promise at the Sea” by Vitali Ianko will take place.
American Near East Relief-100, solemn banquet in New York
On October 28, a solemn banquet was organized by the initiative of Near East Foundation dedicated to the centennial of American Near East Relief Committee. During the evening videos on humanitarian mission of the organization were screened.
Executive Director of the Middle East Foundation Shant Mardirosian presented still acting and already carried out projects of the organization.
Temporary exhibition and presentation of the book “Armenian Sport and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire” in Moscow
Within the conference held in Moscow a temporary exhibition was opened at the museum of Armenian Monastery Complex in Moscow under the title “Armenian Sport and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire”.
The exhibition presents hundreds of newly discovered unique photographs related to the history of gymnastic and sport movement in the Armenian populated cities of the Ottoman Empire.
The presentation of the book “Armenian Sport and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire” by Hayk Demoyan; Doctor of historical science and Director of AGMI also took place on the same occasion.
The prehistory of formation of Armenian sports and gymnastic in the Ottoman Empire, the development process of the sports and gymnastics among Western Armenians and the activity of first Armenian sport clubs are combined and presented in this volume for the first time.
AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan delivers a lecture in at Charles University in Prague
Director of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Hayk Demoyan delivered a lecture at the Faculty of Protestant Theology of the Charles University in Prague under the title “The History and memory of the Genocides Committed in the Ottoman Empire against Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians”.
The lecture was the launch of genocide courses at Charles University.
Participants of Ministerial Conference of International Organization of Francophonie Visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex
On October 11, participants of Ministerial Conference of International Organization of Francophonie headed by Secretary General of La Francophonie Michaelle Jean visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex accompanied with RA Foreign Minister Edward Nalbandian.
Heads and members of the delegation honored the memory of innocent martyrs with a minute of silence near the eternal fire.
ARMENIAN GENOCIDE MUSEUM-INSTITUTE PRESENTS A NEW TEMPORARY EXHIBITION
On 10 October, Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute presented a new temporary exhibition in cooperation with Yerevan History Museum.
The opening ceremony was attended by Mayor of Yerevan Taron Margaryan, and foreign delegations arrived in Yerevan to participate in the city-day celebrations.
The exhibition organized by the support of Yerevan city hall and titled “Gratitude” is presenting the pro-Armenian activities of world mayors and cities during genocide years up to 1920s. Around 25 presented cities had supported the Armenian refugees by providing food, clothes and shelters.
New projects of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute in Artsakh
On 5 October, President of Artsakh Republic Bako Sahakyan met the Director of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Hayk Demoyan.
A number of issues related to the researches, studies and international recognition of the Armenian Genocide were discussed.
The presentation of two books by Hayk Demoyan “Turkey's Foreign Policy and the Conflict of Karabakh” and “Armenian Genocide First Page Coverage in World Press” took place at Artsakh State University.
Remarks by the President of the Republic of Armenia Serzh Sargsyan
at the Congressional Luncheon
President Serzh Sargsyan, who has paid a working visit to the United States of America, On 30 September, took part in a reception held by the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation at the United States Congress in honor of the RA president.
Apart from foundation representatives, the reception was attended about two dozen congressmen, e.g. Ed Royce, chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Congressmen Adam Schiff, Brad Sherman, Jackie Speier, Robert Dold, Jim Costain-Dave Trott, David Valadao, Judy Chu, and by some influential representatives of the Armenian community.
During the congressional reception, the RA president made an address at the end of which the foundation members handed over the Raoul Wallenberg Foundation Medal to Morgenthau’s grandson Robert Morgenthau.
THE COLLECTION OF ARMENIAN GENOCIDE MUSEUM EQUIPPED WITH NEWLY DISCOVERED PHOTO FROM 1915
As a result of the collecting work the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute managed to obtain an original photograph took in 1915.
The newly discovered photo is a unique sample with a view of genocide consequences.
It depicts homeless Armenian orphans in the streets of Diyarbakir and Austrian soldiers giving bread to them.
Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute has published four new books
Four new publications are presented to public by AGMI; “The Armenian Genocide in Contemporary American Encyclopedias” by Arman Kirakossian, “Armenian Genocide in Literature; Responses of the Second Generation” by Rubina Pirumian, “The Number of Armenian Population in Western Armenia 1878-1914” by Robert Tatoyan, as well as the catalogue of temporary exhibition “The Armenian Genocide and the Scandinavian Response”.
An exhibition dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Armenian Genocide in Hague
In 22 September, a temporary exhibition of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute was opened at “Atrium” hall of the Municipality Hague city.
This is the thirteenth exhibition opened in Europe by Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
The exhibition dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Armenian Genocide is titled “Armenian Genocide coverage in world press”.
The exhibition will be open until 9 October.
AGMI PUBLISHED A MONOGRAPH BY ROBERT TATOYAN TITLED “THE NUMBER OF WESTERN ARMENIANS IN 1878-1914”
Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute published the monograph by Candidate of Historical Sciences Robert Tatoyan “The Number of Western Armenians in 1878-1914”.
The work is dedicated to the revisiting history of Armenian population number in Western Armenian provinces during 1978-1914.
Statistical data of the Ottoman government and Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople about the Armenian population number in Western Armenia during 1878-1914 are presented and analyzed in this work.
MUSA DAGH HEROIC BATTLE – 100
Book presentation and opening of temporary exhibition at AGMI
Today, at Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute the presentation of the book “The French Navy’s Assistance to Armenians” by George Gevorgian took place, and a new temporary exhibition dedicated to the daily life of Musa Dagh Armenians was opened.
Director of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Hayk Demoyan awarded the author by “Franz Werfel” gold medal. Unique archival photographs and documents are found in this book, which are being published in Armenian for the first time.
AGMI SIGNED A MEMORANDUM OF COOPERATION
Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and Armenian Genocide Museum-Foundation in Buenos Aires have signed a memorandum of cooperation, according to which the Signatories agreed to organize a presentation on the Armenian Genocide Museum in Buenos Aires.
As stated in the memorandum, the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute is considered the principal partner in carrying out the presentation of the new museum in Buenos Aires.
VICE PRESIDENT OF THE SENATE OF CZECH REPUBLIC VISITED ARMENIAN GENOCIDE MEMORIAL COMPLEX
On 17 September, within his state visit to Armenia Vice-President of the Senate of the Czech Republic Zdeněk Škromach visited Tsitsernakaberd Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex accompanied with RA NA Deputy Speaker Eduard Sharmazanov.
Czech parliamentarians laid a wreath at the Monument and put flowers at the eternal fire, and honored silence the memory of the holy martyrs with a minute of silence.
The members of the delegation got acquainted with the documents and exhibits telling about the Armenian great tragedy and left a note in the Memory Book.
UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY DECLARED 9 OF DECEMBER AS INTERNATIONAL DAY OF COMMEMORATION OF GENOCIDE VICTIMS
RA Foreign Ministry press service informs that on September 11, 2015, the UN General Assembly, at the 103rd plenary meeting of its 69th session, adopted by consensus a resolution, initiated by Armenia and entitled “International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of This Crime”.
This resolution follows up on another important resolution, initiated by Armenia and adopted by the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva on March 27, 2015. In its operative paragraph 22, the UN Human Rights Council recommended to the UN General Assembly to proclaim such International Day.
This resolution adds to the continued efforts of Armenia to promote consolidated international action against the crime of genocide.
“The Armenian Genocide in Contemporary American Encyclopedias”: AGMI presents a new edition
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute has published the new monograph of Armen Kirakossian “The Armenian Genocide in Contemporary American Encyclopedias”. The edition was presented in English.
In this publication Dr. Arman Kirakossian studied and analyzed nearly forty specialized and thematic encyclopedias (Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide, Encyclopedia of Genocide, etc.), dictionaries (Dictionary of Genocide, etc.), handbooks (The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies, etc.) and other directories published in the USA during the last fifteen years.
Based on the material gathered the author divided the book into chapters which are representing conceptual and factual aspects of the Armenian Genocide beginning from the origins of the Armenian Question.
The book consists of 16 chapters, list of encyclopedias, a bibliography of a literature related to the Armenian Genocide from different encyclopedias.
AN EXHIBITION DEDICATED TO THE 100TH ANNIVERSARY OFARMENIANGENOCIDE IS OPENED IN GDANSK, POLAND
On 4 September, an open air thematic exhibition was opened in the central street of Polish Gdansk city, under the title “Armenian Genocide in world press”.
The exhibition materials was provided by Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute under the auspices of Armenian Embassy in Poland and organized by Gdansk city hall, Gdansk History Museum, Polish-Armenian Fund and Armenian community in Gdansk.
The official opening ceremony was attended by RA Ambassador to Poland Edgar Ghazaryan, Mayor of Gdansk Pavel Adamovich, Director of Gdansk History Museum Adam Koperkievich, representatives of Polish-Armenian Fund, Gdansk city hall, Armenian community in Gdansk, and other guests.
Turkish Intellectuals Visited Armenian Genocide Museum
Members of Helsinki Summer School, more than 50 Turkish intellectuals, lecturers and university students visited Armenian Genocide Museum accompanied with regional analyst of Armenian Assembly in America Alin Ozinian. Director of AGMI Hayk Demoyan presented to the guests the history of Armenian Genocide.
Members of the delegation also visited the temporary exhibition hall and got acquainted with the lately opened exhibition “Armenian Sport and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire”.
At the end of the visit organizers of Helsinki assembly had a special discussion with Director of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Hayk Demoyan.
Vatican Honors Armenians, Issues Stamps
VATICAN CITY — The Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State announced that it is issuing stamps in honor of St. Gregory of Narek and Blessed Ignatius Maloyan, CatholicCulture.org reports.
The Philatelic and Numismatic Office honors this year two prominent figures of the Armenian Church, Blessed Ignatius Maloyan and Saint Gregory of Narek, according to Vatican official website.
2015 marks the centenary of the martyrdom of Blessed Ignatius Maloyan, who was Archbishop of Mardin, Turkey, and known for his closeness to the faithful of his diocese and alertness to their material, social and spiritual needs.
Armenians of Musa Ler in Port Said
This photo was published in London, in “The Times. History and Encyclopedia of the War” weekly, where Armenians of Musa Ler are gathered in the tent-city of Port Said raising the salvation flag of Red Cross. This flag attracted the attention of French sailors, who came to rescue the Armenians, blocked on the mountain.
In 1915 and subsequent years the international and Armenian press repeatedly referred to the heroic defence and salvation stories of Musa Ler Armenians. Numerous photos presenting scenes of Musa Ler Armenians being rescued and their settlement in Port Said were published in French and British press. Among them the Red Cross flags and the ones calling for help and thus attracting the attention of French sailors, are notable. One of the flags read: “Christians are in danger, save them”.
Participants of Pan-Armenian Games at Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex
Participants of Pan-Armenian Games, over 4000 sportsmen headed by Ishkhan Zakaryan, Chairman of Pan-Armenian Games World Committee, visited Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex and Museum.
Mr. Ishkhan Zakaryan laid a wreath at the memorial. Delegates put flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent martyrs with a minute of silence.
Members of Pan-Armenian Games organizing committee visited Armenian Genocide Museum accompanied with AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan and got familiarized with the temporary exhibition “Armenian Sports and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire”. At the end of the visit Ishkhan Zakaryan left a note in the memory book of the museum.
An Exhibition Titled “Armenian Genocide: Front Page Coverage in the World Press” Has Opened in Slovakian City of Banská Bystrica
On August 4 an exhibition dedicated to the centennial of the Armenian Genocide has opened in the Museum of Slovak National Uprising (Banská Bystrica, Slovakia) under the title “Armenian Genocide: Front Page Coverage in the World Press”.
The exhibition is organized by the support and efforts of Armenian Embassy in Prague, Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute, Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic and the museum of Banská Bystrica. It has already opened in April, 2015 in the big hall of Bratislava Culture Ministry.
Opening speech was delivered by Stanislav Michev, Director of Slovak National Uprising Museum and Tigran Seyranyan, Ambassador of Republic of Armenia to Slovakia.
The Presentation of Monograph “Armenian Sports and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire” by Hayk Demoyan took place in Armenian Genocide Museum
Today the presentation of the monograph “Armenia Sports and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire” by Hayk Demoyan took place at Armenian Genocide Museum.
This publication is the revised edition of the same volume published in 2009, including around 600 photos relating to the history of Armenian sports and gymnastics.
The prehistory of formation of Armenian sports and gymnastic in the Ottoman Empire, the development process of the sports and gymnastics among Western Armenians and the activity of first Armenian sport clubs are combined and presented in this volume for the first time. Through this highly illustrated volume the reader is introduced with still unknown and very interesting episodes of the history of Armenian sports.
Opening of New Temporary Exhibition at Armenian Genocide Museum
Today in the temporary exhibition hall of Armenian Genocide Museum a new exhibition titled “Armenian Sports and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire” has opened. This exhibition was firstly opened in 2009, but now is replenished with hundreds of new materials and unique photographs, which refer to the history of Armenian sports that started developing and spreading in Armenian populated areas of the Ottoman Empire.
AGMI director Hayk Demoyan says: “This exhibition includes unique original photographs relating to the Armenian sport life in the Ottoman Empire, as well as, prizes, rare medals, posters of sport competitions, newspapers and other exhibits. Most of them are donated to the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute by Jololian family”.
Turkish Guests Visited Armenian Genocide Museum
On 3 August, members of Turkish delegation who arrived in Armenia to participate in the 6th Pan-Armenian Summer Games, visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex accompanied with Ishkhan Zakaryan, the Chairman of Pan-Armenian Games World Committee and members of executive committee.
The Turkish delegation comprised of Mayor of Van Bekir Kaya and Co-mayor Hatice Çoban, mayor of Bitlis Hüseyin Olan, Mayor of Mutk Ozkan Birlik, Mayor of Norshen Emin Özkan, Mayor of Diarbekir Suri District Fatma Shek Barut and other high-ranking officials.
Members of the delegation put flowers at the eternal fire of the Memorial Complex and honored the memory of holy martyrs of the Armenian Genocide with a minute of silence.
Armenian Sport and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire
On August 4, at 12:00, at the AGMI exhibition hall the presentation of the book by Hayk Demoyan “Armenian Sport and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire” and the opening of the same name temporary exhibition will take place.
This publication is the updated and revised version of the same volume published in 2009. The prehistory of the Armenian sport and gymnastic in the Ottoman Empire, the development of the sport and gymnastics in Western Armenia and the activities of sport clubs are combined and presented in this book for the first time. Throughout this photo enriched volume, the reader is introduced with not yet known but very interesting episodes of the Armenian sport.
A temporary exhibition consisting of 12 subtitles named “Armenian Sport and Gymnastics in the Ottoman Empire” will be open from August 4, till 1st of October. The exhibition will include unique photos and materials.
“In the Country of Blood and Tears”
The book by Swiss missionary Jakob Küntzler is the book of July
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute marks the book of Swiss missionary Jakob Küntzler “In the Country of Blood and Tears” as the book of July. The book has a primary source value and describes the events of Urfa during World War I. The fact that the author of the book was an eyewitness to the events makes the memoirs more valuable for those who study the episodes of the Armenian Genocide implementation.
Arriving in Urfa in 1899 Jakob Küntzler started working at the hospital of “German Mission in the East” organization as an assistant to Swiss Doctor Hermann Christi. During World War I he was the only one who was able to provide medical assistance to the people of Urfa and the neighboring settlements.
J. Küntzler and his wife Elizabeth succeeded in saving many Armenians from imminent death.
Hayk Demoyan Participated in the Armenian Genocide Centennial Meeting in Lebanon
On July 21, Hayk Demoyan, Secretary of the State Commission on the Commemoration of the Centennial of the Armenian Genocide and Director of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute, participated in the regular meeting of the Lebanese Central Committee of the Armenian Genocide Centennial.
During the meeting positive response to the political, cultural and promotional events organized in 2015 were discussed.
The importance of organizing temporary exhibitions and presentation of books dedicated to the centennial of the Armenian Genocide was highlighted.
Donald Tusk Visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex
On July 20, President of the European Council Donald Tusk visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex accompanied by the RA Foreign Minister Edward Nalbandyan.
Members of the delegation put flowers at the monument of the Armenian Genocide and honored the memory of the holy martyrs with a minute of silence.
President of the European Council also visited the museum of the Armenian Genocide and was introduced to the exhibition.
Traveling Suitcase of Aurora Mardiganian is Found
During the grand opening of “Golden Apricot” 12th International film festival the AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan presented to the participants the story of eyewitness-survivor Aurora Mardiganian (Arshaluys Martikyan), and her travelling suitcase, which was used in 1918, in USA, while screening the movie “Auction of Souls”.
Aurora Mardiganian’s suitcase was found by the efforts of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and was obtained by the support of Ralph Yirikian, VivaCell-MTS General Manager.
Her name and the name of the movie “Auction of Souls CO” is written on the suitcase.
The Closing Ceremony of the 12th Meeting of International Association of Genocide Scholars
Solemn speeches, handing of medals, postcard cancellation
On July 12, the closing ceremony of the 12th meeting of International Association of Genocide Scholars took place.
The AGMI Deputy Director Suren Manukyan delivered a solemn speech with interesting photos. He expressed gratitude to the presidency of the association - Daniel Feierstein and Donna-Lee Frize - for trusting the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and giving the opportunity to organize such an important event.
He mentioned that the preparation and discussions were hot, sometimes even heated, but effective. There were a lot of applications, but the choice was strict. 130 scholars from 35 countries participated in this conference, having discussions and debates about genocide studies and adjacent fields and shaping directions for the future.
Participants of the 12th Meeting of International Association of Genocide Scholars Visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex
Participants of the 12th meeting of IAGS visited the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex.
Around 130 participants from 35 countries put flowers at the eternal fire of the Memorial Complex and honored the memory of holy martyrs with a minute of silence.
The participants of the conference also visited the Armenian Genocide Museum and got acquainted with the exhibition. Most of them could not hide their emotions.
After they had a walk in the memory alley where they planted a fir.
President Serzh Sargsyan Took Part in the Opening of the 12th IAGS Meeting
Today, at the Great Hall of the American University of Armenia, President Serzh Sargsyan took part in the solemn opening ceremony of the 12th Meeting of the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) titled “Comparative Analysis of 20th Century Genocides.”
The Armenian president delivered a speech. The meeting, which is devoted to the Armenian Genocide Centennial, as well as to the 70th Anniversary of World War II and the Holocaust, was attended by IAGS President Daniel Feierstein, more than a hundred leading experts in genocide and adjacent fields, as well as by eminent scientists from all over the world.
THE GRAND OPENING OF THE 12TH MEETING OF INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF GENOCIDE SCHOLARS TOOK PLACE
On July 8, at 18:00, at the big hall of the American University in Armenia the grand opening of 12th meeting of International Association of Genocide Scholars took place.
This year the meeting is held under the title “Comparative Analysis of 20th Century Genocides”.
The opening ceremony was honored by the presence and speech of the RA President Serzh Sargsyan:
“Some people often use the wording “tragedy” when referring to genocide. But it is necessary that we always use the only correct characterization of the term – “crime.” Tragedy can often be the result of a technological disaster; can be the result of a natural disaster and even the result of a contingency. All this is in stark contrast to genocide, a carefully calculated, planned and prepared crime, which has a clear target, a defined set of tools and an ideology based on xenophobia”.
Press-Conference at AGMI on the International Conference of Genocide Scholars
Today at the AGMI conference hall a press-conference on the 12th meeting of International Association of Genocide Scholars took place.
The speakers of the press-conference were Hayk Demoyan, Director of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and Chairman of the local organizing committee, Peter Balakian, famous American-Armenian writer and historian, Donna-Lee Frize, Chairman of the organizing committee and Suren Manukyan, Deputy Director of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and Conference Director.
During the press-conference Hayk Demoyan announced, that on 8 of July, 18:00, at the big conference hall of the American University in Yerevan the grand opening of the 12th meeting of International Association of Genocide Scholars entitled “Comparative Analyses of 20th Century Genocides” would take place.
Doctors of International Forum Visited Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex
Delegates of International Medical Forum (July 2-4) visited the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex Tsitsernakaberd headed by Armen Muratyan, the RA Health Minister and Ara Babloyan, chairman of the forum.
IGMI Director Hayk Demoyan accompanied the guests. Participants of 4th International Medical Forum put flowers at the eternal fire of the Memorial Complex and honored the memory of the Holy martyrs with a minute of silence.
The delegation also visited the Armenian Genocide Museum, where a special exhibition was dedicated to the doctors working during the years of Genocide.
Members of the Executive Committee of the World Council of Churches Prayed for the Souls of Holy Victims of the Armenian Genocide
On June 10, the members of the Executive Committee of the World Council of Churches visited Tsitsernakaberd memorial Complex to pay tribute to the memory of the Holy martyrs of the Armenian Genocide.
Members of the Executive Committee of the World Council put flowers at the eternal fire of the Memorial Complex and honored the memory of the Holy victims with a minute of silence.
Representatives of various Christian Churches raised their joint prayers to God for the souls of Holy martyrs of the Armenian Genocide with an ecumenical prayer.
President of the Czech Constitutional Court Visited the Armenian Genocide Museum
In June 3, president of the Czech Constitutional Court Pavel Rychetsky and his delegation visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex of the Armenian Genocide. The guests were welcomed by AGMI deputy director Lousine Abrahamyan.
Members of the delegation put flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence. After they visited the museum and were introduced to the new exhibition.
At the end of the visit president of the Czech Constitutional Court Pavel Rychetsky left a note at the memory book of honorary guests.
Interrupted Childhood: Child Victims of the Armenian Genocide
Opening of temporary exhibition at the Lidice Memorial
On June 1, 2015, at 18:00 the opening of AGMI temporary exhibition “Interrupted Childhood: Child Victims of the Armenian Genocide” took place at the Lidice Memorial in Czech Republic.
The exhibition is organized by the Armenian Embassy in Czech, Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and Czech Ministry of Culture.
The RA Prime Minister Hovik Abrahamyan and Minister of Culture of the Czech Republic Daniel Herman were special guests of the event.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Collection was enriched with Valuable Pieces
Any testimony, letters, photographs, postcards related to the Armenian Genocide is of great importance for studying the facts of the period. Over years the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute collection has been enriched with many valuable samples, purchased thanked to individual donations and financial supports.
In this regard, the cooperation of VivaCell-MTS General Manager Ralph Yirikian’s with the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute has already become a tradition. In the last years, with the direct support of Ralph Yirikian the museum collection was enriched with unique items, particularly, an antique postcard collection with photos of Western Armenia and Armenian themes; rare books of significant source, historical documents on the humanitarian support to the Armenian Genocide survivors; an original photo of the Armenian refugees, personal items, letters, stamps, family photos of renowned Armenian families, old newspapers of great exhibition importance referring to the life of Western Armenians before the genocide.
Glen Cove Holocaust Museum Hosts an Exhibition on Armenian Genocide
On May 30, an exhibition dedicated to the 100th anniversary opened at Glen Cove Holocaust Museum in New York.
According to deputy director of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Suren Manukyan the exhibition is consisted of tow parts; photographic stories of Armenian Genocide and an exhibition telling about the humanitarian aid of Near East Relief organization in USA.
Along with the exhibition movie telling the story of Aurora Martikanyan will also be displayed. “It is very important to have such an exhibition, and it will be open until September, after which it will be moved to another Holocaust Museum. I don’t want to pass details, because as our negotiations are still going on”, mentioned Suren Manukyan.
Brazilian Federal Senate Unanimously Adopted a Resolution Recognizing the Armenian Genocide
On May 27, Brazilian Federal Senate unanimously adopted resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide. Resolution No 550/2015 was introduced by the Chairman of Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and National Defense, Federal Senator Aloizio Nunez Fereira Filio and Federal Senator Jose Sera.
According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs the resolution passed by the Brazilian Senate reads: “The Federal Senate of Brazil recognizes the Armenian nation’s Genocide, whose 100th anniversary was observed on April 24, 2015. It pays homage to the Genocide victims and appreciates the contribution made by the thousands of Brazilian-Armenian descendants of the Armenian refugees to the country’s social, economic and cultural life. The Senate emphasizes that never ever should any crime of genocide be forgotten in order not to be repeated”.
AGMI publications at New York Book Expo
On May 27-29, for the first time Armenia participated in the international book exhibition “Book Expo America” held in New York, which is the largest exhibition of Northern America.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute also participated in this exhibition with the publications of last five years. AGMI publications present the history of the horrible crime committed in the last century.
AGMI Deputy Director presents the publications of AGMI at “Book Expo America”.
Cyprus Defence Minister Paied Tribute at the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex
On the 27th of May, within the framework of an official visit by an invitation from the RA Defence Minister Seyran Ohanyan, Defence Minister of Cyprus Christophoras Phokaidis visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex.
Cyprus Defence Minister laid a wreath at the monument, than the delegation members put flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence.
The delegation also visited the museum accompanied by AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan.
Press-release and presentation of books in AGMI
Today the press-release of Hayk Demoyan, the AGMI Director and the Secretary of the State Commission on Coordination of the Events Dedicated to the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, and presentation of the books sponsored by ACBA Credit Agricole Bank took place at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
During the press-release Hayk Demoyan referred to the recent activities of the museum-institute, presenting in details the events which already were held, in particular the opening of the new exhibition of the museum on April 21 and the grand opening of the temporary exhibition in Paris Municipality on April 28 under the title “Armenia 1915: Paris hosts the collection of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute of Yerevan”.
A number of events, such as book publications and temporary exhibitions organized with the support of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute were also presented. The museum-institute collaborates with local organizations and associations as well as individuals representing the Armenian Diaspora, as well.
Exhibition dedicated to the Armenian Genocide in Bucharest
On 22-24 May, within the framework of the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide two thematic exhibitions of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute - “Western Armenian Education” and “Armenian Wedding in the Ottoman Empire” - were presented at the National Museum of Romanian Peasant in Bucharest.
The exhibition was organized by the Armenian Embassy in Romania and National Museum of Romanian Peasant with the support of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and Union of Armenians of Romania.
On May 23, within the exhibition two documentary films “From Ararat to Europe” and “Armenia: the land of Noah” were screened in “Horia Bernea” hall of the same museum. An Armenian trade fair was also organized in the yard of the museum.
Wedding ceremony of Armenian orphans in Mesopotamia
The photo presents a scene from the collective wedding ceremony organized by Danish Armenophil Karen Jeppe in the Mesopotamian new built Tina village (Syria), where eight couple were married at the same time. This unique wedding ceremony was performed by Mkrtich Muradyan and two other priests. The second person from the left is Yeni Yenson; assistant of Karen Jeppe.
The photo was taken in late 1920s.
In 1921, Karen Jeppe was appointed as an authorized Commissioner to a commission established by “League of Nations” for releasing abducted Armenian women and orphans. The operation of rescuing the Armenians was called “Mission of Rescue” or “Liberation Mission”, but officially “Mission of the League of Nations for the Protection of Women and Children in Near East”.
AGMI Joins “Museum Night” with a Temporary Exhibition
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute also joined the pan-European event “Museum Night 2015” under the title “Museums - witnesses of memory”.
The museum was crowded from the morning. The visitors were introduced to the new exhibition and shared their impressions in the memory book.
Recall, that in April 21 the Armenian Genocide Museum was reopened with a new building and new exhibition.
The scientific concept of the new exhibition is developed and implemented by the staff of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute (AGMI) headed by Hayk Demoyan, director of the museum-institute, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Secretary of the State Commission on the Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide.
The Tragedy of the Armenian People – The Armenian Genocide Happened One Hundred Years Ago
Exhibition in Budapest
In cooperation of the National Libraries of Hungary and the Republic of Armenia and various related institutions an exhibition introducing the Armenian Genocide was opened in the National Széchenyi Library, Budapest, Hungary on 20 March 2015.
A brief description of Armenian history and Christianity is followed by the Ottoman Empire’s anti-Armenian actions leading to the extermination of Armenians in the empire. The exhibition also provides materials regarding the loss of cultural heritage, formation of postgenocide Armenian diaspora communities, international legal struggle for recognition, and worldwide commemoration. The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute contributed to the exhibition by providing archive photos and media coverage. The museum collection of the local Armenian community in Budapest contributed to achieving a more local perspective.
The curators of the exhibition are Dr Bálint Kovács and professor Sándor Őze from Péter Pázmány Catholic University [PPCU]. The exhibition was coordinated by Nikolett Czézár. Scientific contributors are Artem Ohandjanian, Piroska Krajcsir, Hakob Matevosyan, AGMI’s present-year Lemkin scholar Éva Merenics, Elke Hartmann and Emese Pál.
The Armenians of Van near the Bread-Baking Oven
This photo was published in the first edition of the memories of Henry Morgenthau US ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, published in 1918, in New York. The photo is of Armenians in Van gathered around the public bread-baking oven hoping to get some bread, surrounded with Turkish soldiers. In the explanatory note of the photograph it is mentioned: “These people were forced to leave their homes without warning and driven to the desert. During the deportation thousands of women, children and men had died not only of hanger and hardship, but also because of the inhuman brutality of escorting soldiers”.
Van is one of the ancient capitals of historical Armenia. This city with a story of three thousand years had lost its Armenian population during the Armenian Genocide. In 1915, like every area with Armenian population, massacres started also in the surrounding villages of Van, and in the beginning of April the Armenian population of Van appealed to self defense, and resisted the Turkish army and the attacks of Kurdish irregular squads for nearly one month.
Delegation of Dutch House of Representatives Visited the Armenian Genocide Museum
On May 12, within the framework of a work visit to Armenia the Delegation of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Dutch House of Representatives led by Harry van Bommel visited the Armenian Genocide memorial in Tsitsernakaberd, accompanied by the Chairman of the Standing Committee on Foreign Relations of the National Assembly of Armenia Artak Zakaryan.
Members of the delegation laid flowers at the Memorial and honored the memory of the 1915 Armenian Genocide victims by a minute of silence.
The delegation also visited the Armenian Genocide Museum, and was introduced to the new exhibition. At the end of the visit, Harry van Bommel, head of the delegation, left a note in the Book of Honorable Guests.
The Self-defense Battle of Van – 100
The wave of pogroms broke out in the vilayets of Western Armenia in the beginning of 1915 also reached the province of Van. Turkish troops defeated in the Caucasian Front (around 12,000), along with the Kurdish irregular squads and Circassian cavalrymen under the command of newly appointed governor Cevdet Bey started the massacres of the Armenian population, lootings and destructions. In a number of provinces (Shatakh, Hayots Tsor, Arjesh, Timar, Aljavaz, etc.) the Armenians appealed to self-defense carrying on persistent fights against the enemy.
Long and stubborn resistance was taking place in the city of Van, centre of the province; thousand of Armenians escaping from surrounding villages joined the 23 thousand Armenians living in the city. Soberly assessing the situation and avoiding the impending extermination local Armenian political parties headed by Aram Manukian, hold on a meeting and decided to turn on to self-defense.
Cancellation of Postage Stamps at the Library of Congress
On May 6th, 2015 in the Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA, the designated National Postal Operator of the Republic of Armenia HayPost CJSC cancelled a stamp on the theme of “The centennial of the Armenian Genocide: Henry Morgenthau” and a stamped souvenir sheet on the theme of “The centennial of the Armenian Genocide: American Committee for Relief in the Near East”.
The design and the content solutions of the souvenir sheet of “The centennial of the Armenian Genocide: American Committee for Relief in the Near East” were made by the AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan.
The donation poster of the American Committee for Relief in the Near East “Lest they perish” is on the souvenir sheet, with the Armenian orphans thanking the US on the background.
The cancellation was carried out by Vigen Sargsyan, Chief of Staff of the President of the Republic of Armenia, Tigran Sargsyan, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Armenia to the United States of America, and Narine Seferyan, Commercial Development Director of HayPost CJSC.
Serzh Sargsyan, President of the Republic of Armenia and His Holiness Karekin II, Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians, were present at the solemn cancellation.
The Self-defense Battle of Van, April-May 1915
A scene from the heroic battle of Van: a trench dug in one of the city streets during the battle. The defense battle of Van was organized in April-May 1915 to save 23 thousand Armenians over there, as well as, tens of thousands of Armenian refugees coming from the surrounding villages from impending massacre. Thanks to this imposed self-defense the Armenian population of Van and the surrounding Armenian villages were saved from the scourge.
This photograph was published in the American «The Literary Digest» newspaper in 9 October 1915. The photo was presented by an article titled “The Extermination of the Armenians” with the following inscription: “Armenians struggling for life”.
In April 1915, Turkish troops besieged Van cutting off the connection between districts of the city - Aygestan and Qaghaqamej. However the Armenians in Van managed to assemble quickly and turn to self-defense. A unit was established for the self-defense management headed by Aram Manukyan, a national figure.
Luxembourg Parliament Adopts Resolution on the Armenian Genocide Recognition
On 6th of May, the parliament of Grand Duchy of Luxembourg unanimously adopted a resolution on recognition of the Armenian Genocide. The resolution stated that the tragic events carried out in 1915 in the Ottoman Empire against the Armenian constitute Genocide.
The resolution invokes the resolution adopted by the European Parliament in 15 April 2015 on the Armenian Genocide Centennial and urges the Turkish authorities to face up to its past.
Spanish Lawmakers Visited the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute
On 5th of May, Basque Member of the Spanish Senate Urko Aiartza and Basque Member of the Spanish Congress Rafael Larreina visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex to pay their tribute to the victims of the Armenian Genocide. They laid flowers at the memorial and visited the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
In an interview with “Armenpress” Rafael Larreina has particularly mentioned: “The recognition of the Armenian Genocide is very important. It’s a pity that it’s taking too long. I believe all people and countries supporting justice must recognize the Armenian Genocide, like the Parliament of the Basque Country has done. This is why we wanted to visit the memorial complex to publicly declare our recognition, pay tribute, declare that we share the pain and call on countries not having recognized the Armenian Genocide to do so because this is a matter of humanitarianism and democracy, as well as solidarity between people.
Temporary Exhibition of the AGMI Unique Collection Opened in Paris
In the capital city of France - sister city of Yerevan - a temporary exhibition dedicated to the Armenian Genocide Centennial was opened.
In the heart of Paris, in the historical building of Paris Municipality, Hôtel de Ville, France hosted the collection of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
On April 28, the grand opening of the exhibition “Armenia 1915: Paris hosts the collection of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute of Yerevan” took place.
Opening speeches were made by the Mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo, the RA Foreign Minister Edward Nalbandyan, the AGMI director Hayk Demoyan.
Office Named After Israel Charny in AGMI
An office named after a Jewish genocide expert and chief editor of Encyclopedia of Genocide Israel Charny was opened in the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
In his works, articles and speeches famous genocide expert repeatedly referred to the history, recognition and condemnation of the Armenian Genocide. He constantly speaks against the denial of the Armenian Genocide by the Turkish government.
In 2011, Israel Charny was awarded the RA presidential prize “for decades of academic work and his research activities related to the recognition of the Armenian Genocide and the denial of genocides”.
Event to Commemorate the Anniversary of Henry Morgenthau
Today, an event to commemorate the memory of the American ambassador to the Ottoman Empire Henry Morgenthau (26 April 1856 – 26 November 1946) took place at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
The event was attended by the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States to Armenia Richard M. Mills, Morgenthau family members, renowned genocide scholar Israel Charny, and director of the school after Morgenthau Gohar Arzanyan.
The AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan, US Ambassador Richard M. Mills, the grand-son of Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Henry Morgenthau 4th delivered welcome speeches.
“Komitas, Portrait of an Armenian Icon”
Presentation of a Book at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute
Today at 16:00 the presentation of the Armenian translation of a book by Rita Syulahian-Kuyumjian “Archeology of Madness, Komitas; Portrait of an Armenian Icon” will take place at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
The book is dedicated to the studies of still unknown pages and the folds of psychological experiences of the great Armenian composer, musician and armenologist Komitas Vardapet. Based on psychology, using modern psychiatric-psychoanalytic approaches and methods, the author has tried to reveal Komitas’s psychological characteristics, emotions and their sources, to provide professional conclusions and substantiates.
Two main threads of human life are intertwined in psychic-mentality of the Armenian people - suffering and art. In the biography of Komitas these two are combined creating a tragic, but at the same time - a life of wonderful artist.
Komitas was born in 1869, in the city of Kyutahya in the Ottoman Empire, and being a stroller orphan he turned to be a great musician of international fame.
The Armenian Genocide in the memory of ANZAC soldiers
Several soldiers of ANZAC became victims eyewitnesses of the Armenian Genocide and after the end of WWI returned to Australia and were engaged in organization of humanitarian actions.
April 25 is national commemoration day in memory of ANZAC. This day Australia commemorates the military “christening day”. April 25 was officially called ANZAC day in 1916, and in 1920s it was renamed as a day commemorating the memory of 60.000 Australians, who fell during WWI.
On April 25, 1915 the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps under the British command disembarked in Gallipoli peninsula, according to Winston Cherchill’s plan of making access to the Black Sea and capturing Constantinople. Gallipoli battles started on April 25, 1915, a day following the imprisonment of Armenian intelligentsia and ended on January 7, 1916. At that period 8709 Australians and 2721 New Zealander fell victims in Gallipoli, about 217 soldiers became prisoners of war in the Ottoman army. At first glance these two historical events are not interrelated.
Cooperation Agreement between the AGMI and the Shoah Memorial in Paris
On April 24 the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and the Shoah Memorial in Paris signed a Cooperation Agreement. President of France François Hollande, who had arrived in Armenia to participate in the Centennial events of the Armenian Genocide, also attended the signing ceremony.
According to this agreement the sides undertake to organize courses on the Armenian Genocide and Holocaust, educational meetings, exchange Armenian Genocide and Holocaust documents, research document sources in France, organize exhibitions, seminars, etc. The agreement states: “Our common desire is to develop the research exchanges of memory, education and Holocaust between the two countries.
Convinced, that this cooperation contributes to the maximum recognition, both in France and Armenia, of the Armenian Genocide and extermination of Jews in Europe and massacres of XX century, and at the same time adhering to the values of transferring the knowledge, and keeping the memory of the victims, in order to educate the coming generations and prevent the possibility of the repetition of such crimes”.
President Serzh Sargsyan Pays Tribute to Memory of Armenian Genocide Victims at Tsitsernakaberd
Today – the day of the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide – RA President Serzh Sargsyan, Chairman of the State Commission on Coordination of the Events for the Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, accompanied by heads of numerous senior-level delegations and heads of state who have arrived in Armenia, visited the Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex and took part in the commemorative ceremony of the Armenian Genocide Centennial.
President Serzh Sargsyan delivered a speech.
Statement by Serzh Sargsyan, the President of the Republic of Armenia, in Tsitsernakaberd
The Armenian orphans in the refugee camps of Syria
A series of the Armenian orphans is depicted in the photograph. Each of them has per diem bread in their hands.
Leopold Kashchik, Karen Jeppe’s Polish colleague, is the author of the photograph. By Jeppe’s assignment the latter was taking photos of the Armenian refugee camps of Aleppo.
Karen Jeppe attached similar photos to her letters in order to receive humanitarian aid and financial support from the political organizations for the Armenian orphans sheltered in Syria and elsewhere.
Presidents of Four Countries Visit Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute
On Aril 24 by the invitation of President of RA Serzh Sargsyan the presidents of Russian Federation, France, Serbia and Cyprus visited Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute to take part in commemoration of victims of the Armenian Genocide.
The presidents of Russia, France, Serbia and Cyprus toured Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and got acquainted with the new permanent exhibition.
After the tour the four presidents made notes in register for honoured guests.
The presidents were impressed with the newly-opened museum exhibition.
At the Origins of Commemoration:
April 24 as a Day of Mourning and
Commemoration of the Armenian Genocide
In March 1919 a special committee was formed in Constantinople by a group of Ottoman Armenian intellectuals, who had survived the Armenian Genocide. The main goal of this committee was the organization of commemoration ceremonies dedicated to the 4th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. The committee, known as “The April 11th Board for Mourning Ceremony” consisted of 13 members including Yevphime Avetisian, Zaruhi Galamkyarian, Mary Stambulian, Perchuhi Parsamian, Miss Arpiar, Tigran Zaven, Merujan Parsamian, Hakob Siruni, Gevorg Mesrop, Tagvor Sukiasian, Dr. Barsegh Tinanian, Shahan Perperian and Hovhannes Poghosian. Due to the efforts of these people the commemoration honouring the memory of the victims of the Armenian Genocide was held among the Armenians of Constantinople for the first time in 1919. Armenian writer, publicist and public figure Hakob Siruni wrote the following in his memoirs: “The mourning ceremony became a tradition. Since then, the 24th of April became a day of mourning for Armenians.”
According to the committee, commemoration ceremonies were to be held on April 11/24, but obviously because of the Armenian Patriarch’s illness the commemoration was delayed by a day. Bishop Mesrop Naroian spoke a liturgy for the victims of the Armenian Genocide on April 12/25 in St. Trinity Church of Bera district of Constantinople. Zaven Yeghiaian, the Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople, gave a sermon stating that “all martyrs are grains of wheat, covered by earth, one day they will sprout and give fruits.”
Turk Journalists of Hrant Dink Foundation Visited the Armenian Genocide Museum
Turk journalists who have arrived to Armenia within the framework of Hrant Dink foundation visited the newly reopened Armenian Genocide Museum.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Director Hayk Demoyan welcomed the Turk journalists and presented the new exhibition.
The exhibition consisting of 12 halls and 52 titles has deeply impressed the quests. During the excursion the AGMI Director allowed the Turk journalists to see and make photos of some original documents presented in print, particularly, the certificated awarded to the Ottoman army officer of the Armenian origin Sargis Torosyan by the Ottoman Minister of War Enver Pasha and one of the laws on the “abandoned” Armenian properties.
“The Voice of Anguish” a book of April
Towards the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute is launching “A book of the month” project. Books will be selected very carefully: they must be the memoirs of the Armenian Genocide survivors, research papers and other publications of great importance. The aim of this project is to introduce the readers with rare and still unknown works related to the topic to make the readers aware of the subject and provide an in-depth knowledge about the Armenian Genocide.
“The Voice of Anguish” by Petros Tonapetyan is a book of April.
“The Voice of Anguish” is a collection of the letters, written on the routs of deportation and exile by 353 Armenian refugees sheltered in Syrian deserts and Caucasus. In the introduction the Petros Tonapetyan, who composed the book, mentions, that “The author of the book is not just one person but a few hundred, but today they do not exist, except few of them”.
The book is published in Paris, in 1922, in Hakob Tyurapian publishing house, 500 pages.
The Grand Opening Ceremony of a New Exhibition of the Armenian Genocide Museum Took Place in the Presence of the RA President Serzh Sargsyan
Today on 17:00, the grand opening of a new and exclusive exhibition of the renewed Armenian Genocide Museum took place in the presence of the RA President Serzh Sargsyan.
AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan delivered a welcome speech and greeted the RA president, high-ranking officials, museum’s benefactors and other guests. In his speech AGMI Director expressed his deepest gratitude to the RA President Serzh Sargsyan, benefactors of the museum: Gabriel Chemberjian, founding President of “Pyunik” charitable foundation, Jevan Cheloyants, member of Council of Directors of “Spartak” club, Maxim Hakobyan, former General Director of “Zangezur Copper Molybden Combine” CJSC, Armen Shahazizyan, the founder of “Luding” company, Ralf Yirikian, General Manager of VivaCell MTS, Tigran Kalajian and Feliks Pirumyan, Advisor to the RA President, as well as to the entire staff of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
Temporary Exhibition Dedicated to the Centennial of the Armenian Genocide was Opened at the Central Museum of Great Patriotic War in Moscow
Remembrance event dedicated to the Centennial of the Armenian Genocide was held at the Central Museum of Great Patriotic War in Moscow. The event took place in the presence of Diocese of Russia and New Nakhichevan Archbishop Ezras Nersisyan, representatives of the Russian Federation Presidential Administration, Government of Moscow, religious communities, clergymen and public figures.
During this event opening of a temporary exhibition “Armenian Genocide and Russian Response” took place, by displaying historical samples on the Armenian Genocide. The exhibition will be open from 20 to 24th of April.
This exhibition prepared by the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute shades a light on the Russian response to the Armenian Genocide and the years before in social, political and intellectual circles. For the first time documentary and photographic items are being circulated in temporary exhibition format. The exhibition consists of 25 posters, and will have an illustrative album later on.
Delegation of the National Academy of Sciences at the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex
Delegation of the RA National Academy of Sciences headed by Radik Martirosyan, the President, visited Tsitsernakaberd - the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex.
Members of the delegation, comprising members of the Presidency, directors of the institutes, academicians and correspondent members, put flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence.
The guests were accompanied by the AGMI Director Hayk Demoyan and Deputy Director Suren Manukyan.
European Parliament Adopted a resolution on the Armenian Genocide
In April 15, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the Armenian Genocide. The resolution urges the EU member states to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide, and encourages the EU Member States and institutions to contribute further to its recognition.
This is the second document adopted by the European Parliament, recognizing the Genocide of 1.5 million Armenians preplanned and implemented by the Ottoman Empire in 1915. The European Parliament adopted a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide back in 28 September 2005.
Meanwhile the European Parliament resolution of July 18, 1987 particularly emphasized that the tragic events in 1915-1917 in the territory of the Ottoman Empire constitute genocide within the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948.
Children burnt alive by the Turks in Mush in 1915
In this photo the children with carefree and innocent eyes are the Armenian girls of the Mush orphanage with their teacher Margaret. The photo was taken by a Norwegian missionary Bodil Katharine Biørn - a member of the Scandinavian organization “Women Missionary Workers”. Before the tragic events of 1915, Bodil Biørn worked in the orphanages of Mush and Mezre.
In summer 1915, during the massacres of the Armenian population in Mush, the city was set on fire by the Turkish army: thousands of Armenians were burnt alive in their houses. According to the note left by Bodil Biørn on the back of the photo, the teacher Margaret and her children were also burnt alive. A witness of the Turkish crimes, Sister Biørn suffered intense anguish losing all the children of her orphanage in one day, to whom she had gave her maternal love and care over years. The screams and calls of help of the helpless children were embedded in the memory of Bodil Biørn.
PACE President Anne Brasseur visited Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex
The President of the Parliamentary Assembly of Council of Europe (PACE) Anne Brasseur visited the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex accompanied by the RA NA Vice President Hermine Naghdalyan.
PACE President laid a wreath at the monument. Than the members of the delegation put flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence.
At the end of the visit Deputy Director of the Armenian Genocide Museum handed a number of AGMI publications to Anne Brasseur.
The Temporary Exhibition “Armenian Genocide: Front Page Coverage in the World Press” was opened at the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles
On April 8, the Temporary Exhibition “Armenian Genocide: Front Page Coverage in the World Press” was opened at the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles. More than 500 guests attended the opening night reception of the highly anticipated three-day unique exhibition at the Skirball Cultural. Organized by the AGBU Asbeds, in collaboration with the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute, the exhibit showcased sketches, illustrations and photographs of Front Page Coverage of the Armenian Genocide in the World Press. Government officials, clergy, community leaders, scholars and professors alike attended the event. Among the dignitaries in attendance was the Honorable Congressman Brad Sherman who commended the important undertaking of the AGBU Asbeds in bringing awareness of the Armenian Genocide of 1915 through the highly educational exhibition.
The evening's keynote speaker was Dr. Hayk Demoyan, Director of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
In his remarks, the Primate expressed his gratitude to the AGBU Asbeds under the leadership of Dr. Harout Yaghsezian for wonderfully organizing the exhibition. His Eminence also commended the outstanding professional work of Dr. Hayk Demoyan.
The Armenian Genocide Museum & Institute signed Memorandum of Understanding with USC Shoah Foundation
On April 10, Hayk Demoyan, director of the Armenian Genocide Museum & Institute and Stephen Smith, director of the USC Shoah Foundation, signed a memorandum of understanding that paves the way for future collaboration between the two organizations.
The first 60 interviews from USC Shoah Foundation’s new Armenian Genocide Collection will be indexed and available to view in the Visual History Archive on April 24, 2015, the 100th anniversary of the genocide. These interviews are part of the Armenian Film Foundation’s collection of 400 interviews of Armenian Genocide survivors and witnesses recorded by filmmaker J. Michael Hagopian beginning in the 1970s.
The memorandum of understanding between USC Shoah Foundation and AGMI is an agreement to make AGMI a full access site of the Visual History Archive, so visitors and scholars in Yerevan can view all 52,000 testimonies, including the Holocaust, Rwandan Genocide and Armenian Genocide collections, on-site at the museum. AGMI will also collaborate on research and educational projects with USC Shoah Foundation and explore the possibility of expanding the Armenian Genocide Collection with new or existing testimony.
Kardashian Sisters Paid Tribute at the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex
Famous Armenian-American TV stars Kim and Khloe Kardashian, world famous singer Kanye West and the accompanying delegation visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex.
The guests were accompanied by the AGMI Deputy Director Suren Manukyan. He presented to the guests the history of the Armenian Genocide and the memorial complex.
Kardashian sisters put red tulips at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence.
Armenian Woman With her Child Tortured to Death
Three photos depicting women and children victims of the Armenian Genocide were published in the Russian journal “Iskra” (Sparks), No 18, 18 October 1915. This photo is one of those representing an episode of the Armenian Genocide.
There are empty carts next to the dead body of a martyred woman; by the command of the Young Turks government the caravan of the Armenian deportees was moving to the Mesopotamian deserts - the point of exile.
Unlike the Holocaust, which was unknown to the wide international community for quite a long time, publications on the mass extermination of the Armenians by the Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire appeared in the Armenian and international media already in 1915.
“Testimonies of the Armenian Genocide in Photos and Documentaries” Temporary Exhibition in Nicosia
An exhibition devoted to the Armenian Genocide has opened on April 3, 2015 in Nicosia, the capital city of Cyprus. An opening speech was delivered by the President of the RA NA, Galust Sahakyan and the President of the Cypriot House of Representatives, Yiannakis Omirou.
Galust Sahakyan expressed his gratitude to the President of the Cypriot House of Representatives, Yiannakis Omirou, the representative of the Armenian community in Cyprus, MP Vardges Mahtesian, the Directorate of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and all those who had contributed to the organization of the exhibition.
On his part, the President of the Cypriot House of Representatives, Yiannakis Omirou mentioned: “The civilized world is not apathetic toward the horrible crimes committed against the humanity. The international press condemned Turkey’s respective demeanor even back in the last decade of the 19th century.
Surviving the Genocide; an Exclusive Story of Rescue During the Holocaust
Mihran Mavian was born in Adapazar, on July 26, 1900. In summer 1915, Turkish authorities began the massacre and deportation of 25.000 Armenians in Adapazar. The whole Mavian family was killed except three children: Mihran, his brother and sister. After the Mudros Armistice in October 1918, they returned to Adapazar with 4000 other Armenians. Finding their home destroyed they were forced to leave. 300 Armenians who remained there were also slaughtered afterwards. After wandering for many years Mavian arrived in France in 1923, established in Marseille where he was involved in social activities. He was a member of the French Communist Party of Armenia Relief Committee since 1928.
In 1940-1944, during the German occupation of France, Mavian participated in French Resistance movement, becoming a member of a French Resistance hero Misak Manushian’s group. Mavian wrote in his memories: “After 1941 the hitlerists threw away their mask of "Good conquerors". They started from the Jews, whom they forced to have yellow star on their chests. Then they collected all of them: men, women, elderly and children and derived to Trance. All of these reminded me the tragedy of the Armenians in 1915”.
Cyprus Parliament Unanimously Adopted a Bill Criminalizing the Armenian Genocide Denial
A member of the Cyprus Parliament Vardges Mahdesyan has reported that on April 2, 2015, the Cypriot Parliament unanimously adopted a bill criminalizing the Armenian Genocide denial.
The bill was submitted to the Parliament jointly by all political parties represented in the Cypriot Parliament. The bill will penalize denial of genocides, war crimes and crimes against humanity.
The bill was proposed to be passed on the occasion of the Centennial of the Armenian Genocide.
Under the law those who deny the Armenian Genocide in Cyprus will face five-year imprisonment and a fine of 10,000 euro.
Members of the AGBU 88th General Assembly Visited the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex
The members of the AGBU 88th General Assembly headed by the chairman Berj Sedrakian visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex.
AGBU chairman laid a wreath at the monument and then the members of the delegation from different countries put flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence.
The guests also visited the temporary exhibition hall of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute accompanied with the AGMI Director and got acquainted with the exhibition on the history of the Armenian Genocide.
Daylight After a Century:
a glimpse into pre 1915 Ottoman Armenia
This film documentary tells the story of writer George Jerjian’s latest book, Daylight after a Century, a collection of photographs taken by his grandfather of his home town and college town.
Dr George Djerdjian (1870-1947), grandfather of the writer, took 240 photographs of his hometown of Arabkir and his college town of Erzeroum between 1900 and 1907, of which only about 100 survive. These photographs capture the way of life of a people that within a decade would become extinct in Anatolia, their homeland for over 3,000 years. The photographs are varied and have been arranged under separate headings such as water, land, people, churches, schools, economic life, social life, and political life.
For over a century, these photographs were stored in a grey steel box, which migrated from Arabkir to Alexandria, Egypt, where it stayed for almost 50 years. Then it moved with descendants to Khartoum, Sudan, where it stayed for 20 years, then onto London, England for 30 years, and then to Washington DC for about 10 years. Now this collection of photographs has finally been exposed to daylight after a century of darkness.
Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation Sergey Naryshkin Paid Tribute at Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex
Within his working visit to Armenia (March 30-31) the Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation Sergey Naryshkin visited Tsitsernakaberd - the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex, accompanied with RA NA Deputy Speaker Edward Sharmazanov.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Director Hayk Demoyan presented to the guests the story of the Armenian Genocide and the memorial Complex.
The Chairman of the State Duma Sergey Naryshkin laid a wreath at the monument. Than the Russian guests put flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence.
Press Conference at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute
Today, a press conference of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute took place in the conference hall of AGMI.
The key themes of the conference were the reopening of the Armenian Genocide Museum, the schedule of the events in 1915, and the temporary exhibition in Paris City Hall.
The new exhibition of the museum will occupy a space of 2500 square meters, where thousands of items collected in the last 7-8 years will be presented. A part of them will be presented as printed posters, as well as multimedia; in the form of projectors and touch screens. Currently the final design works of the museum are going on. Original and unique photos, books, documents and other items will be also presented.
After nearly two weeks a special presentation of the new museum will took place for the media representatives.
Director of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Hayk Demoyan also referred to the temporary exhibitions opening in different countries of the world, he said: “Soon three large exhibitions will be opened in Paris, USA California, and Mexico. In April 29, the temporary exhibition “Armenia 1915; Paris Hosts the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute of Yerevan”, which will last till 4th of July.
Capital of France will host the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Collection
On April 29, 2015 a temporary exhibition dedicated to the Armenian Genocide Centennial will be opened in the Paris Municipality. “Armenia 1915: Paris hosts the collection of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute of Yerevan” exhibition will run from April 29 untill July 4.
Simultaneously in two halls of Hotel de Ville of Paris Municipality exhibits and photos presenting shocking fragments of the genocide committed against the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the 20th century will be shown.
“This is really a unique event for the museum. Realizing the importance to be represented with such unparalleled exhibition in Paris, we have decided to present unique exhibits in the capital of France, which I am sure, will trigger great interest. I want to express my deepest gratitude to the Paris Municipality for such opportunity, as well as to the Embassy of the Republic of Armenia in France for assisting in organizational matters”, - the AGMI director Hayk Demoyan notes.
Exhibition dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide in Pinto, Spain
On March 26, exhibition entitled “Armenian Genocide on the front pages of the world media” was held in Pinto, Spain. The event was organized by the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute in cooperation with the Embassy of Armenia in Spain.
Ambassador of Armenia to Spain Avet Adonts, diplomats, politicians, public figures, journalists and representatives of the Armenian community participated at the event.
In his remarks, at the beginning of the event, Ambassador Adonts expressed gratitude to the Mayor and members of Pinto City Council for official recognition of the Armenian Genocide. The Ambassador reflected on scheduled events on the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, presenting their essence and content.
Armenian Refugee Women around the Corpse of a Donkey
From the special project “100 photographic stories about the Armenian Genocide”
This photo was made in 1916 in Horan region of Syria. This is a unique scene of tortured and hungry Armenian refugee women grouped around the corpse of a donkey. The author of a photo is Hasan Amjan who was appointed by Djemal Pasha as an inspector of the Armenian deportees. He was personally in charge of resettling the Armenian deportees in Syria and Lebanon.
The photo proves a critical situation of the Armenian deportees. To satisfy their hunger and thirst people were forced to perform unimaginable: even some examples of hannibalizm were reported. When Hasan Amjan approached them with a photo camera to depict that scene, no one paid attention, casted a glance or looked at his direction.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute and Ararat-Eskijian Museum Published the Memoirs of the Ottoman Armenian Sportsman
The memoirs titled “Love, love, love” are a very unique source of the pre-genocide history of the Armenian life in the Ottoman Empire. It’s also an absolute historical source of the history of sports and Olympic Games, World War I, Armenian Genocide, as well as the refugees and migration.
For the first time in the Ottoman history two Armenian sportsmen Vahram Papazian and Mkrtich Mkrian represented the Ottoman Turkey in the fifth Olympic Games in Stockholm in 1912.
In the chapter “On the way to Stockholm” Papazian wrote: “In 1912, the International Olympic Games were to be held in Stockholm, and Turkey was invited to participate. However, the Turks had no athletes, while the Armenians did. So the Armenians decided to send their athletes to represent the huge Ottoman Empire and succeeded. Ottoman Turkey participated twice in a similar international competition as an empire thanks to two Armenian sportsmen, as you will see later on. The two Armenian athletes brought honor to their country… …When I arrived in Stockholm in the morning, I noticed that the streets and important buildings were adorned with flags of all the countries participating in the Olympic Games, but there was not a single Turkish flag among them. I was very concerned about this. After all, I was the official representative of the Ottoman Empire, and this slight against my country was an insult to me.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute publications in Paris International Book Fair (Salon du livre)
On March 20-23 the Armenian Genocide Museum- Institute participated in 35th Paris International Book Fair (Salon du livre). The Armenian Genocide Museum- Institute presented its best publications during this international platform, which did not leave indifferent foreign readers.
Fifty delegations from all over the world presented their culture and literature during four days. Thousands of literary critics, writers, translators, publishers and scholars participated in the exhibition. Minister of Culture of France also visited the gallery.
Paris International Book Fair was concluded with round-table discussion devoted to “The role of intellectuals in prevention of genocides”. Armenian and French intellectuals, particularly the director of The Armenian Genocide Museum- Institute Hayk Demoyan, Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Armenia Nerses Ter-Vardanyan, historians Raymond-Harutiun Kevorkian, Miqayel Nishanyan, Yves Ternon, psychoanalyst Janine Altounian, journalist Kayc Minasyan and others participated in the round-table discussion.
The heads of Customs Authorities of EEU member states visited The Armenian Genocide memorial complex
The heads of Customs Authorities of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) member states, headed by the Armenian Finance Minister Gagik Khachatryan, visited the Armenian Genocide memorial complex Tsitsernakaberd.
The heads of the delegations laid a wreath to the memorial. The guests, arrived from different countries, also visited the Eternal Flame commemorating the innocent victims and honored the memory of the victims with a moment of silence.
The guests, accompanied by the Deputy Director of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute Souren Manoukian, had a tour around the memorial. The Deputy Director presented the history of the Armenian Genocide.
Wedding Photograph That Has Passed Through Der Zor
"100 photographic stories about the Armenian Genocide" special project
Yozghattsi Clement and Rebecca Kyurkchyan’s wedding photograph (Yozgat, 1910). This is the only saved photograph-relic from Kyurkchyan family. The photo was torn from the middle during the years, and then was restored with adhesive tape. In the handwritten text on the reverse side the fate of the family and the photograph-saving story are presented.
After adopting a law on "Deportation" in 1915, mass expulsion of Western Armenians began, accompanied by unprecedented violence against the civilian population. The Armenians were forced to reject their religion. Masses were deported to the Mesopotamian deserts of Der Zor, Ras al-Ayn, Meskené and other settlements, where migration stations were established.
In 1915, Clement Kyurkchyan Yozgat was deported to Der Zor.
Address by President Serzh Sargsyan at the 5th Media Forum “At the Foot of Mount Ararat”
Ladies and gentlemen,
I greet you in the Republic of Armenia, and welcome your participation in the framework of this important and large-scale event. The presence of 150 well-recognized journalists from the different corners of the world itself speaks for the international community’s attention to this forum, as well as of its interest towards Armenia. I hope that, besides your work, you, the participants of the forum bearing the beautiful heading “At the Foot of Mount Ararat,” will have the opportunity to familiarize with the Armenian culture and cuisine, and admire the wonderful view of biblical Mount Ararat.
It is obvious that in our days, media outlets have huge potential to disseminate universal values, fight against their encroachment and consolidate the international community. Today, a highly representative group of international media outlets has gathered under the same roof. You have already built an effective media platform for the discussions pertaining to the Armenian Genocide with the objective to once again uncover the realities regarding one of the most serious crimes committed in the 20th century. This forum, why not, is also a unique platform to thoroughly and comprehensively present the achievements of the Republic of Armenia in various areas, and challenges faced by our country.
International Media Forum on Armenian Genocide Centennial Opens in Yerevan
The Fifth International Media Forum “At the foot of Ararat” is being held in Yerevan, Armenia on March 18 -20. The event focuses on the Armenian Genocide committed by the Ottoman Empire in the Western Armenia and other territories a century ago.
The forum is held under the motto “I remember and demand”. The discussions are comprised in four principles guiding the events in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide –remembrance, gratitude, revival and international campaign for the recognition of genocides.
The forum brings together representatives of international media organizations of various nations, scholars, public and political figures and creates a media platform for discussing issues concerning the history and recognition of the Armenian Genocide, states’ accountability and prevention of future crimes, genocide denial, destruction of cultural heritage and etc.
Euronest PA adopts Resolution on Armenian Genocide centennial
Resolution by the Armenian and the European Parliament on the Centennial of the Armenian was adopted today at the 4th Ordinary Session of the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly in Yerevan. The measure was adopted with a vote of 33 to 4.
Joint text for an Urgent Motion for Resolution by the Armenian and the European Parliament on the Centennial of the Armenian Genocide
The delegates of Euronest Parliamentary Assembly paid a visit to the Armenian Genocide Memorial Complex Tsitsernakaberd
The Participants of the Fourth Ordinary Session of the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly visited the Armenian Genocide Memorial and paid tribute to the memory of the Armenian Genocide victims.
The members of delegation put flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence.
The guests accompanied by Souren Manoukian, the deputy director of AGMI, had a tour around the memorial. He accompanied the guests to the Memory wall representing the support provided to the Armenian orphans and refugees by missionaries of various nationalities during the Armenian Genocide.
A Survivor of the Armenian Genocide Aurora Mardiganian’s life story - a Book of March
Every month the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute announces «Book of the month» on the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. «Book of the month» should be an important recollection
Every month the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute announces «Book of the month» on the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. «Book of the month» should be an important recollection on the Armenian Genocide, exceptional witness accounts and other publications of great interest. The aim of this project is to introduce the wide audience of readers to the unique and almost unknown works, provide information and deeper knowledge on the topic.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute recognizes Aurora Mardiganyan's «Ravished Armenia» a book of March, which is presented to the reader in the Armenian translation. The book presents a young Armenian girl Aurora Mardiganian's ( Arshaluys Martikian ) recollection on the excruciating sufferings and inhuman tortures she and her expelled nation have passed during the Armenian Genocide.
There are thousands of survivor’s stories passed to their heirs; however Aurora's story has a unique feature that attracts everyone's attention: rescued by a miracle Aurora found herself in the USA, where the book “Ravished Armenia” was written and published based on her life story in 1918. The same year a silent film «Auction of Souls» made for charitable aims appeared on the screens, where Aurora played herself and became the first Armenian film actress.
The Trial of Soghomon Tehlirian
This unique photo was taken during one of Soghomon Tehlirian’s trial sessions in June 1921 in Berlin.
Operation Nemesis was carried out to punish the Young Turk criminals responsible for the Armenian Genocide who had escaped justice.
On March 15, 1921 in Berlin Soghomon Tehlirian assassinated the former Ottoman Interior Minister Talaat Pasha. The latter had moved to Germany by changing his appearance and personal details.
In June 1921 the trail of Soghomon Tehlirin took place over 2 days in Berlin.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute published Aurora Mardiganian's book in Armenian
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute published Aurora Mardiganian's book «Ravished Armenia» translated into Armenian.
The book presents a young Armenian girl Aurora Mardiganian's (Arshaluys Martikian) recollection on the excruciating sufferings and inhuman tortures she and her expelled nation have passed during the Armenian Genocide. There are thousands of survivor’s stories passed to their heirs; however Aurora's story has a unique feature that attracts everyone's attention: rescued by a miracle Aurora found herself in the USA, where the book “Ravished Armenia” was written and published based on her life story in 1918. The same year a silent film «Auction of Souls» made for charitable aims appeared on the screens, where Aurora played herself and became the first Armenian film actress.
«I dedicate my book to every mother and father of this beautiful country - the USA - who has taught their daughters to believe in God.
Minister of Justice of the Republic of Lithuania visited Tsitsernakaberd
Minister of Justice of the Republic of Lithuania, Juozas Bernatonis accompanied by Minister of Justice of the Republic of Armenia, Hovhannes Manukyan visited Tsitsernakaberd, the Armenian Genocide memorial.
The guests laid wreath to the memorial of eternal fire and honored the memory of the victims of the Armenian Genocide with a moment of silence.
The delegation from Lithuania also visited the temporary exhibitions hall of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute, where the temporary exhibits concerning the Armenian Genocide were introduced to the members of the delegation.
The Minister of Transport of the Republic of Iraq pays tribute to the victims of the Armenian Genocide
In the framework of his official visit to Armenia the Minister of Transport of the Republic of Iraq Baqir Jabr Al-Zubeidi visited Tsitsernakaberd, the Armenian Genocide memorial.
Baqir Jabr Al-Zubeidi laid a wreath to the memorial and the Iraqi guests honored the memory of the victims of the Armenian Genocide with a moment of silence.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute deputy director Suren Manukyan presented the history of the memorial construction.
Andranik Ozanyan 150
Armenian national liberation figure, military leader Andranik Ozanyan ( Andranik Commander) was born in Shapin-Garahisar (Sebinkarahisar ) on February 25, 1865. Having obtained the fame of national hero, Andranik had a special role in the Armenian liberation movement at the end of 19th and in the beginning of 20th centuries. Andranik became a member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun party in 1892 and participated in the defense of the motherland with other fedayins.
He played an important role in organizing the Armenian voluntary movement during World War I.
Leading hard defensive fights in Erzurum in 1918, Andranik rescued Armenians escaping from Turkish massacres.
Taking Photo With Death…
“100 Photographic Stories of the Armenian Genocide”
The photo is of German soldiers who served in the territory of Ottoman Empire during World War I. They were photographed with the bones of brutally killed Armenians near Hekimkhan. The date of the photo is also known, 18 November 1918.
The negative of this photo was given by German soldiers to the Armenian photographer Tsolak Dildilian in order to depict it.
This photo and its negative have an interesting story. The Armenian photographer Tsolak Dildilian, who pretended to convert to Islam, after depicting and giving the photo to the Germans have decided to keep the negative assuming that the relics in the photo might be of his relatives who where killed in the same place in mid 1915.
Presentation of the manuals “How to Teach the topic of Armenian Genocide” and “How to Cover the topic of Armenian Genocide” took place at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute
Presentation of the manuals “How to Teach the Topic of Armenian Genocide” and “How to Cover the Topic of Armenian Genocide” took place at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute (AGMI).
Deputy Director of the AGMI Suren Manukyan presented the manuals. “The manuals are published within the framework of the grant competition announced by the Youth Foundation of Armenia as a partner organization of the RA president and with the efforts of the center for regional and political studies “Prospectus” NGO.
US Secretary of State Representatives Visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex
The Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs at the United States Department of State Victoria Nuland, US Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense Evelin Farkas and US Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Armenia Richard Mills visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex.
The American guests laid flowers at the eternal fire and honored the memory of the innocent victims of the Armenian Genocide with a minute of silence.
The Chairman of the Parliament of the Republic of Georgia David Usupashvili visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex
Within the framework of his state visit to Armenia the Chairman of the Parliament of the Republic of Georgia David Usupashvili visited Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex accompanied by the RA NA Vice President Hermine Naghdalyan.
The Chairman of the Georgian Parliament laid a wreath at the monument. The Georgian guests honored the memory of the innocent victims with a minute of silence.
“The Story of Henry Morgenthau” the book of the month
Towards the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute is launching “The book of the month” project.
The books will be selected very carefully: they must be the memoirs of the Armenian Genocide survivors, research papers and other publications of great importance. The aim of this project is to introduce the readers with rare and still unknown works related to the topic in order to make them aware of the subject and provide an in-depth knowledge about the Armenian Genocide.
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute selected “The Story of Henry Morgenthau” to be the book of February. These memoirs have the significance of a unique source for the history of the Armenian Genocide, particularly, to reveal the folds of the crime, determined and planned by the Turkish Government, and to identify and explore the thoughts of the Turkish criminal regime of that time.
The Armenian orphans gathered from deserts
“100 Photographic Stories of the Armenian Genocide”
The photo is of the Armenian orphans gathered from deserts and brought to Jerusalem in 1918. These tattered, barefoot and bald headed boys are of different age groups. Most of them did not speak Armenian and had lost their national identity. It took some time to turn them back to their national Armenian identity.
In 1915-1923 as a result of the Armenian Genocide thousands of the Armenian children were left orphans and converted to Islam. Many of them had died of hunger and various epidemics raging at that time.
Awarding ceremony of the winners of the International Children’s Exhibition of Fine Arts Lidice was held at AGMI
Awarding ceremony of the winners of the International Children’s Exhibition of Fine Arts Lidice was held at the temporary exhibition hall of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute. The Deputy Director of the AGMI Lusine Abrahamyan gave a welcome speech.
The Czech Ambassador to the RA Peter Mikiska noted that 255 Armenian children have participated in the international exhibition, twelve of whom were awarded the certificates and incentive prizes.
Hollywood Star Jackie Coogan Giving Cloths to Armenian Orphans
“100 Photographic Stories of the Armenian Genocide”
The photo is of the famous Hollywood actor Jackie Coogan giving cloths to the Armenian orphans at an aid station. He was welcomed by an employee of the American Relief, who was wearing the uniform of the organization.
Such aid stations were set up in many cities in the United States.
Jackie Coogan became popular as a child actor, especially after playing his role in a silent film “The Kid” with Charlie Chaplin.
Considering his reputation, the American Near East Relief Committee had involved the famous child-actor in relief activities to provide assistance to thousands orphans in the region.
Deportation Scene of the Armenians of Erzurum
“100 Photographic Stories of the Armenian Genocide”
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute has published the illustrated book “100 Photographic Stories of the Armenian Genocide”.
100 famous as well as unknown photos are presented in this volume, providing unique conceptual and iconographic information about the Armenian Genocide, becoming an irrefutable evidence of the crimes against humanity and civilization committed in the Ottoman Empire.
We are going to periodically present the photos included in the volume with their interpretations.
The presentation of the book will be held soon.
The Number of Armenian Population of the Erzeroum Province of the Ottoman Empire on the Eve of the Armenian Genocide
This article presents and analyzes the main statistical sources on the Armenian population of the Erzurum province of the Ottoman Empire for the period of 1878-1914. The data is grouped by the source origin: Ottoman official, of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, data from other Armenian, Russian and Western sources. Comparative statistical tables of data provided by the Ottoman, Armenian, Russian and Western sources are compiled.
An attempt was made to estimate the number of the Armenian population of the Erzurum province by districts and sub-districts on the eve of the Armenian genocide. The calculations are based on the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople’s 1913-14 census data, which are adjusted with figures found in Genocide survivors’ accounts, refugees’ registration data and other auxiliary sources.
The Armenian Genocide Centennial: Addressing the Implications
The conference “The Armenian Genocide Centennial: Addressing the Implications” took place on 31 January, at Haygazian University in Beirut.
Deputy Director of Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute, Dr.Suren Manukyan had a presentation titled “The demographic, cultural, geographical, economic and political consequences of the Armenian Genocide”.
Speeches of the conference included reports about the consequences of the genocide and international laws to eliminate them, Armenian-Turkish relations, etc.
The Pan-Armenian Declaration on the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide was promulgated at the Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex
Following the session of the State Commission on Coordination of the events for the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, President Serzh Sargsyan, in company with the commission members and the participants of the enlarged session, today visited the Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex, laid a wreath at the Memorial to the Victims of the Mets Eghern and paid tribute to the memories of the innocent victims. Later on, the members of the state commission familiarized with the preparatory works of the new exhibition to be held at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute.
At the Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex there also took place the promulgation ceremony of the Pan-Armenian Declaration on the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. The declaration was adopted unanimously at today's session of the State Commission on Coordination of the events for the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. President Serzh Sargsyan read the document and pursuant to the resolution of the the State Commission on Coordination of the events for the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, deposited the original copy of the declaration with the Armenian-Genocide Museum-Institute. The Armenian President noted that one of copy of the declaration will be sent to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and one will be deposited in the National Archives of the Republic of Armenia.
Presentation of scientific publications at the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute
On January 22, at 12:00, in the conference hall of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute the presentation of two periodicals published by AGMI _ “Journal of Genocide Studies” (in Armenian) and the first issue of the English-language “International Journal of Armenian Genocide Studies” will take place.
The academic periodical “Journal of Genocide Studies” includes topics related to the history and historiography of the Armenian Genocide, as well as full and comprehensive research on the problems and the aspects related to the topic.
The Memoirs of Sargis Torossian “From Dardanelles to Palestine” is selected to be “The Book of the Month”
Towards the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute is launching “The book of the month” project.
The books will be selected very carefully: they must be the memoirs of the Armenian Genocide survivors, research papers and other publications of great importance. The aim of this project is to introduce the readers with rare and still unknown works related to the topic in order to make them aware of the subject and provide an in-depth knowledge about the Armenian Genocide.
The memoirs of Sargis Torossian “From Dardanelle to Palestine”, which is published in Armenian and Russian by the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute, is the book of the January.
President Serzh Sargsyan responds to Turkish President’s invitation letter
In response to Turkish President Recep Erdoğan’s invitation to take part in the events commemorating the centenary of the Battle of Gallipoli to be held on the 24th of April this year President Serzh Sargsyan has sent a letter that reads as follows:
“Honorable Mr. President,
I have received your invitation to participate in the commemoration ceremonies marking the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Gallipoli.
Genocide Denial as a Form of Racism: Approaches in International Law
Genocide is not a single act but a continuing process. The International Association of Genocide Scholars identified 8 stages of Genocide: denial is the eighth stage of the Genocidal policy.
A great number of scholars argue that the deliberate denial of a known genocide is a harmful act that should be put on the same footing as indirect and direct contributions to the actual genocide. National and international court decisions also clearly demonstrate that genocide denial and minimization or distortion of its facts is a form of racism. A number of international legal instruments also explicitly or implicitly prohibit Genocide denial.
Thus, the Armenian Genocide, as a clear implication of racism, is punishable under Public International Law.
Hayk Demoyan: "We should get rid of the complex. Armenian Genocide centennial not the end."
Mr. Demoyan, large-scale events are expected to mark the centennial of the Armenian Genocide. Many people inquire about what is going to follow April 24.
Of course, we can observe such sentiments, but we have repeatedly noted that this year should not be viewed as the limit. I can tell you about events we are planning for 2016. Turks are actually expecting that as well. In his latest statement Etyen Mahçupyan (Senior Advisor to the Turkish Prime Minister) said that the opening of the Armenian-Turkish border and other issues will be discussed after situation has calmed down in 2015. That is, they are waiting a wave to come and go and they will take steps. We should get rid of the complex that something will take place in 2015. Our mood should not be that the centennial is the end. One more problem is that the Armenian Genocide is a common topic, but talks have to be followed by deeds, serious work needs to be done, which is expected to produce results. And we are now marking the centennial of the Armenian Genocide with only one museum, whereas we should have had at least five or six museums in big centers of the world. Such museums are not cultural centers. Rather, they are instruments for us to provide on-site educational information. But we are speaking of one-day marches, demonstrations and so on. As far as I know around US $1m is needed to organize a march, convention or lecture in New York. We need to specify what we are working for, what we are directing funds to and what the results are.
AGMI has published the Russian translation of “From Dardanelles to Palestine” by Sarkis Torosian
The Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute has published in Russian the memories of Sarkis Torosian, an Armenian officer of the Ottoman Army.
The memories narrate the odyssey of the Armenian officer in the Ottoman Army who passed across the horrors of WWI. Unexpected changes of events and figures, and presenting the history of Armenian Genocide from totally unexplored point makes the narration of Sarkis Torosian more interesting and exciting, which leaves an indelible impression on readers.
The story of Sarkis Torosian is not just memories, but unique monument and living testimony of the Armenian Genocide.
AGMI gave the start to its project “The Star of the Near East Relief”
Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute (AGMI) has launched the project “The Star of the Near East Relief”. The project is dedicated to the mission and legacy of the world largest relief campaign of the United States of America during and after the WWI, which is unfortunately ignored and forgotten nowadays in the American memory and current politics. It is noteworthy that the legacy of the Near East Relief became a role model for subsequent world-wide relief operations.
Director of the AGMI Dr. Hayk Demoyan says in this regard: “We proudly can say that the collection of the Armenian genocide museum comprises hundreds of unique and rare original photos, documents, memorabilia and other items related to the history of the American Near East Relief.
Press-Releases and Book Presentation at AGMI
Today, at 12:00 pm the annual press conference of the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute took place in the conference hall of AGMI.
During the press conference Hayk Demoyan, Director of AGMI and the Secretary of State Commission on coordination of the events dedicated to the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide represented the current preparatory works of the new exhibition, as well as the events which will be organized by the Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute in 1915.
After the press conference the presentation of the book “Turkey's Foreign Policy and the Conflict of Nagorno Karabakh” authered Hayk Demoyan, took place.